Combining Tech Helps with AC Transloading

Automated scraper strainers paired with macerators eliminate high volumes of large, suspended solids from slurries for a “set it and forget it” approach. All photos courtesy of Acme Engineering

Automated scraper strainers paired with macerators eliminate high volumes of large, suspended solids from slurries

In the asphalt industry, industrial strainers are used to separate unwanted suspended solids from liquids and slurries for efficient transloading, in which asphalt is heated to a liquid form and transferred from tank cars to trucks or from trucks to tank cars at rail facilities. However, conventional strainer methods can be improved upon to keep debris or solids of substantial size or quantity out of the liquid.

A novel blend of industrial wastewater technologies now allows for the efficient removal of solids without the need for extensive manual labor and so on. Specifically, the design involves the combination of a macerator, which breaks down large solids into smaller fragments, and an automated scraper strainer flexible enough to filter out larger debris along with tiny particles. This innovative solution is even designed to accommodate high solids loading without clogging.

The combination of these two established technologies is already being applied to some of the toughest straining applications including asphalt transloading, wastewater debris, power plant boiler water slag and meat processing waste streams. Our interest here is asphalt transloading.

“Although the macerator cuts up the biggest solids, the strainer must still be able to separate both relatively large pieces and tiny particles while handling high solids loading without becoming obstructed.”—Robert Presser

Overcoming Traditional Limitations

Duplex strainers are often used in continuous flow processes that cannot be shut down for cleaning purposes. Duplex basket strainers employ two distinct chambers that function independently. When one chamber needs cleaning, the flow is diverted to the alternate chamber, enabling the removal and cleaning of the first basket.

Cleaning is a laborious process that involves equalizing pressure between the baskets, diverting flow to the off-line chamber, opening the cover, manually removing the clogged basket, and cleaning it before refitting the basket, ensuring the seal and tightening the fasteners.

An automated scraper strainer like that from Acme Engineering is designed to continually remove both large and small suspended solids from liquids and slurries.

If an operator fails to adequately clean the basket strainers for any reason, both strainers can become clogged at the same time. This compromises the filtration process, resulting in quality issues or unexpected downtime until the problem is resolved. For many processors, this can occur simply due to having insufficient personnel to keep basket strainers clean along with their other duties.

“As an alternative, a combination of established complimentary technologies such as a macerator and an automated scraper strainer can essentially ‘knock out’ even the toughest problems related to large solids and high solids loading in an automated way,” said Robert Presser, vice president of Acme Engineering Prod. Inc., a North American manufacturer of industrial self-cleaning strainers. The company is an ISO 9001:2015 certified manufacturer of environmental controls and systems with integrated mechanical, electrical and electronic capabilities.

In this configuration, a macerator would be installed upstream to reduce large solids down to a manageable size. The capabilities of the automated strainer are crucial to the process as well, according to Presser.

“Although the macerator cuts up the biggest solids, the strainer must still be able to separate both relatively large pieces and tiny particles while handling high solids loading without becoming obstructed,” Presser explained.

Adapting strainers for the specialized filtration of uncommon liquids and slurries requires not only expertise but also collaboration with the processor as well as some design iterations.

In the case of Acme, the OEM’s automated scraper strainer is designed to continually remove both very large and very small, suspended solids from liquids and slurries. Cleaning is accomplished by a spring-loaded blade and brush system, managed by a fully automatic control system.

Four scraper brushes rotate at 8 revolutions per minute (RPM), resulting in a cleaning rate of 32 strokes per minute. The scraper brushes get into wedge-wire slots and dislodge resistant particulates and solids. This approach enables the scraper strainers to resist clogging and fouling when faced with large solids and high solids concentration.

Blowdown typically occurs only at the end of the intermittent scraping cycle when a valve is opened for a few seconds to remove solids from the collector area. Liquid loss is well below 1% of total flow.

If additional pressure is required to clean the screen, Acme Engineering can add an inexpensive trash pump to the blowdown line to assist in removing the solids from the strainer sump.

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“Since the solids are small, a little trash pump can pressurize the blowdown line to evacuate solids from the strainer. The combination provides quick ROI because operators no longer have to monitor and clean out heavily loaded basket strainers, resulting in substantially less labor and downtime,” Presser said.

Alternatively, the sump can be replaced by a cylinder bracketed by two gate valves that open and close as needed to remove the solids waste.

“When you are ready to empty the cylinder, you close the top gate valve momentarily and open the bottom one by depressing a button to dump the accumulated solids into a receptacle like a dump truck or a conveyor bucket so there is no manual handling required,” Presser said.

According to Presser, Acme has worked with operators and managers at rail facility intermodal terminals to implement a wide range of specialized straining systems for difficult applications with exceptionally large solids or very high solids loading.

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In one example, the OEM installed equipment to strain asphalt slurries at intermodal terminals providing rail-to-truck and truck-to-rail transloading services. One application involved using multiple cylinders with gate valves to appropriately strain liquid asphalt to the correct specification for rail-to-truck loading.

According to Presser, adapting strainers for the specialized filtration of uncommon liquids and slurries requires expertise and collaboration with the processor and some design iterations.

“For unusual applications, it may take a few attempts to get it right. You may have to adjust the timing and frequency of cleaning as well as adjust the screen slot size. There are quite a few variables involved,” Presser concluded.

For more info, visit Acme Engineering Prod. Inc. at acmeprod.com.

How to Be the Plant Everyone Buys From

Editor’s Note: For 2024, AsphaltPro Magazine allows experts in the industry to share how to expand your operations to the next phase of business. Are you ready to start making your own hot-mix asphalt? Let’s turn to some professionals who have equipment, services, software and tenure to help you expand to mix design, production, hauling and more. This month’s installment looks at the best practices you can employ with the storage silo to offer customers quick, quality asphalt mix for their paving projects.

If you’re in the hot-mix asphalt (HMA) industry, you know one of the game-changing inventions of last century was the storage silo. During his “Asphalt Plant Efficiency” presentation during a World of Asphalt People, Plants and Paving session in Nashville in March 2024, Greg Renegar, the vice president of customer success for Astec Industries, Chattanooga, discussed the benefits of planning ahead with your storage silos in mind.

If your “why” is to provide mix for both customer and in-house crews, you’ll want to plan ahead for overnight storage of appropriate mixes as you build your new plant. During his presentation to the World of Asphalt audience in March, Astec’s Greg Renegar reminded attendees the plant that can start loading out customers first thing in the morning will be the plant everyone flocks to.

As he explained, even if you have older components you’ve been unable to update the past few years, you can operate efficiently if you maintain those parts, tighten up your environmental footprint, and follow best practices, such as optimizing the use of storage silos.

Notice that’s “optimizing” the use of storage silos. Not every mix design is ideal for the suggestions to come, and we’ll talk about those.

“If you are using very low absorption aggregates, it may lead to a high film thickness and the mix is more prone to drain down.”—Steve Jackson

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Store It for Fast Startup

Renegar’s presentation included a side-by-side comparison of operations you might be able to share with your production team to showcase what’s optimal and what’s not.

Amazing Producer ABC

Using old technology

  • Starts loading out of prefilled silos at 6 a.m.
  • Starts up the plant at 8:30 a.m.
  • Runs two to three mixes on various jobs, with enough trucks for the day
  • Runs all day with changeovers but no mid-streams
  • Fills the silos at the end of the day for tomorrow’s early customers

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Struggling Producer XYZ

Using new technology

  • Starts making mix at 6 a.m.
  • Runs two to three mixes on various jobs, short of trucks
  • Mid-streams at 8:30 for 45 minutes
  • Runs another 300 tons and finishes for the day!
  • Cleans out
  • Gets a call at 10:15 a.m. for a 150-ton parking lot job
  • Fires back up at 11 a.m., runs 147 tons, then mid-streams while paving foreman figures the last bit needed

One of the two producers in our examples is using new technology for its efficiency and sustainability but isn’t using best planning strategies. Renegar shared plants that start and stop more than three times per shift use up to 20-35% more fuel than they do when they run steadily. These percentages are published in the National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) publication QIP-132.

You can probably monitor the effect of starting and stopping on your own fuel use. By using the storage silo to take up the slack and prevent starts and stops, you keep a steady, even production. Renegar stated Astec’s most successful customers are the ones who use long-term storage capabilities to become more profitable.

Think about it.

Because 95% of breakdowns occur at startup, you have a leg up on the day even if unplanned downtime hits you at first light. You also have a leg up on your competition on the other side of the county if your plant already has mix in the silo while Producer XYZ is still getting fired up.

Renegar explained it this way: “Storage in multiple silos plus planning allows FOB customers to get in and out quickly in the morning. Serving the FOB customers better than your competition will result in more business.”

Expand Into Production: Navigate the Permit Process

Design Your Storage

This isn’t rocket science. But it does require forethought. Renegar cautioned producers on some reasons you might not want to store mix overnight. For example, lack of planning from your customers could result in wasted mix. There’s no point in producing a hundred tons of state mix at 300 degrees if your top five customers will show up wanting a less-pricy mix produced at 340 degrees.

If you don’t have proper heating systems in place, you run the risk of losing mix temperature. There are companies making electric heating elements that can be placed in silo cone packages to take the fear out of overnight storage. These entities might not make the silo itself, but are experts in the manufacture of electric heating components and provide these to OEMs like CWMF Corp., Waite Park, Minnesota, who then assemble the complete silo.

Even with the concern of temperature under control, you want to consider the mix design you’ll store. Renegar listed the “fear of storing polymer” as one of the reasons producers shy away from filling up the silo overnight or over a weekend. Folks in the field echo his concern when it comes to open-graded mixes due to a phenomenon known as drain down. This is when gravity pulls the liquid asphalt cement (AC) away from the aggregate and down toward the silo cone.

Steve Jackson, the vice president of plant operations and sustainability for NB West Contracting, Pacific, Missouri, spoke of this phenomenon in stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixes. “The worst mix that I have seen for drain down is SMA,” Jackson shared. “That is why some agencies are reluctant to remove the cellulose fibers even when you add ground tire rubber or reduce the mix temperature.”

He gave an example. “I remember an SMA project where we filled a silo, and that was all the mix that we made for the night. The first sample, from the bottom of the silo, had high AC and 1.5% air voids. The second sample, toward the top of the silo, had low AC and 7% air voids. We made the mix extra hot because it was going to spend a long time in the silo.” The expensive lesson he shared was having to mill out that tonnage and replace it.

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“SMA, open-graded friction course and other gap-graded mixes are the worst for this phenomenon,” Jackson continued. “They also usually have specified minimum asphalt contents. If you are using very low absorption aggregates, it may lead to a high film thickness and the mix is more prone to drain down. When Joe Schroer (NB West’s construction materials engineer) worked at MoDOT, he evaluated some of those mixes, and started calculating the volume effective binder, and approved some of the SMA mixes with less than the minimum spec requirement AC content of 6.0%.”

In other words, there’s hope for “fixing” the gap-graded mix so it can be stored overnight for quick loadout in the morning, if you’re willing to work with it.

Malcolm Swanson, industry consultant and president of e5Engineers LLC, Chickamauga, Georgia, shared his thoughts. “Coarse graded mixes, SMAs, any mix with little surface area will tend to drain down. That is a major reason for adding fiber to a mix. Fiber adds surface area without changing gradation. The added surface gives the AC a place to hang on.”

“If the state allows the contractor to design their own non-gap-graded mixes, then the mix has the absolute minimum asphalt content, so they are less likely to drain down,” Jackson said. “If there are mixes that specify a minimum asphalt content, then I would be careful. Take a look at the aggregate absorption as well. We typically use aggregates with 1% or lower water absorptions in our high type mixes, these are mixes that we try to drop the mix temperature as low as possible to prevent drain down.”

For producers looking to optimize the use of the storage silos, it’s possible to adjust the mix design and temperature to ensure you have exactly what your customers are looking for first thing in the morning. It might take a little forethought and planning, but the producer who plans ahead is the producer who can optimize all the components for a tight environmental footprint, an efficient operation and a plant that all the customers flock to.